Example Of How Has The Media Helped Ethnic Groups to Promote Themselves Dissertation


Abstract

Media plays a significant role in the current world. Likewise, ethnicity defines the social position of human beings. Due to social stratification, some ethnic groups enjoy a noble position in society, whereas a few face various challenges due to their ethnicity. Therefore, this research paper analyzes how ethnic groups promote themselves through media. At the same time, it also evaluates how media helps reduce the extent of discrimination among ethnic groups. It also presents recommendations for using social media for young entrepreneurs from minority ethnic groups. In addition, the research methodology for this study involves a qualitative approach that collects and analyzes data from interviews with respondents. 

The sample sizes include black people, Hispanics, Indians, and Asian people. The sample size is 7-10 participants. As a result, various themes include Social Capital, Social Networking (Formal and Informal), Inter-Ethnic Linking, Low-Cost marketing opportunities, Job Opportunities, Self-confidence, recruiting labor, Finding Customers, Promotion of Culture, Advocacy, Entrepreneurial Marketing, Niche Marketing are extracted. Finally, some key strategies include utilizing social media and other digital platforms to reach your target audience, partnering with influencers and advocates within the community, creating authentic content that resonates with your audience, and engaging meaningfully with community members.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

The first chapter of the study will help provide background information on the topic under discussion. Also, it will focus on the research objectives and the research questions designed based on the objectives. At the same time, this chapter will help justify the significance of the study and will highlight the structure followed by the current study. 

1.1 Background

For a long time, ethnicity has piqued the interest of social scientists. This is because ethnicity typically refers to a small number of predetermined social positions that are received at birth, independent of a person’s volition or desire, and cannot be altered. People experience such statuses more deeply and have a higher opportunity for greater disputes since they are often seen as a fundamental and unchanging component of human nature (Nagornyy, 2018). The advent of technology helped bring an optimistic change in every field of life and social change by bringing people together. Furthermore, media can be seen as a powerful tool for communication around the globe that helps people build strong connections with each other. According to Veresiu and Giesler (2018), media helps different ethnic groups represent themselves better. Also, communication between people from the same ethnic group living across the world can connect through media and represent their concerns through different online or offline media channels. At the same time, Mossie and Wang (2020) illustrated that vulnerability becomes a savior when technology improves, for instance, the utilization of social media in order to communicate, express opinions, engage with people, and find and share information. Even though social media provides an important platform for easy and effective communication, it also serves as a vehicle for disseminating hate speech online. This is owing to prominent social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter openness to disseminate hate speech, sensitive material, and contentious issues. According to Internet user surveys, Internet hate speech has major offline consequences for both groups and individuals.

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1.2 Problem Statement

The available literature on the media focused on varying aspects related to how media contributes to the promotion of different ethnic groups. Different studies explain that the media is essential in promoting different ethnic groups through promotional activities, brand recognition, or other methods. The studies have focused on how different brands show their products and services to disseminate knowledge about varying cultures or promote ethnic groups on different platforms. Mossie and Wang (2020) talked about how media fosters a culture of hate speech against different ethnic groups, negatively impacting people. Simultaneously, Nagornyy (2018) focused on explaining the term ethnicity in detail. It shows that the researchers have explored the media and ethnicity differently. However, the current study focuses on how media helps different ethnic groups promote themselves. Also, the specific focus of the study is on the minorities such as black people, Asians, Hispanic, and Indians.  

1.3 Research Objectives

The current study aims to follow the underlined objectives;

  • To analyze the way ethnic groups promote themselves through media
  • To evaluate the way media helps in reducing the extent of discrimination among ethnic groups
  • To recommend the use of social media for young entrepreneurs from minority ethnic groups

1.4 Research Questions 

The main research question of the current is “How has the media helped ethnic groups to promote themselves?” however, the sub-questions are underlined;

  • How do ethnic groups promote themselves through media?
  • How do the media help reduce the extent of discrimination among ethnic groups?
  • What are the recommendations for social media for young entrepreneurs from minority ethnic groups?

1.5 Research Significance 

The advanced technologies allowed individuals from varying ethnic groups to promote themselves through media. Different platforms help ethnic groups promote their views and issues, including Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc. Henceforth, the study has a significant value in the field of research as it will allow different researchers to have a precise idea regarding the use of media to promote ethnic groups. Also, it will help in bringing an optimistic social change by bringing people together from different ethnic groups under the same concept. For instance, movements such as “Black Lives Matter” help reduce discrimination against minorities and promote social justice through online channels. Therefore, this study will contribute to the literature by providing requisite knowledge.

1.6 Structure of the Study

The study structure will help the readers better understand the complete research and the content included in a different chapter. Furthermore, the research structure mainly focuses on the five chapters included in the study. The first chapter is related to the introduction, which will help in providing background information about the concepts and terminologies used in the study. Also, it will focus on developing research questions based on the research objectives. It will also highlight the problem statement and explain the study’s significance.

The second chapter is a literature review that will focus on identifying what is already known about the topic and will help broaden the knowledge on the subject by reviewing the research of other researchers. The third chapter will explain the methodology used for the study, qualitative or quantitative, along with the research design and how data will be collected and analyzed using different techniques. The fourth chapter of findings and analysis will show the results after analyzing the collected data. Finally, the fifth chapter will be the conclusion, which will summarize the whole study and focus on drawing attention to the study’s limitations. Also, it will provide information on the practical implications of the study under discussion and the future directions that will help future researchers explore the topic from different dimensions. 

CHAPTER 02: LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter includes a literature review that will help broaden the knowledge related to the subject matter. It will focus on identifying what is already known about the topic and will try to provide an understanding of how different researchers have explored the topic from different dimensions.

According to Melissa (2000), ethnicity is a historical and comparative construction. Generally, ethnic media is a practice of journalism. This practice is implemented to, for, and about ethnic groups. Intentionally or unintentionally, news and entertainment media promote public hostility towards ethnic groups. Numerous broadcasting stations worldwide broadcast programs in about 15 languages to several ethnic backgrounds in the country. The world’s earliest national public television network is APTV (Aboriginal people Television) which is considered the first and most ancient station (Melissa, 2000). These ethnic media stations might be established individually or by a group of people that render an opportunity to those who have a keen desire to contribute according to the information needed for a community.

Bailey and Harindranath (2007) have proved that ethnic media can clear the way for feelings of belonging and communal and societal participation among first and subsequent-generation migrants. Although the latest studies and research’s proneness and disposition have been directed and aligned with multiculturism, the enormous representation of ethnic media functions confesses adaptation, adjustment, and multicultural purposes. The leading pluralistic purposes of ethnic media can be to conserve and pass on homegrown culture and identification and recognition of sustaining the language and encouraging racial satisfaction; to organize the outnumbered and minor broadcasting, to declare and set forth community events; and to shield minority social occasions (this may include the minority business advertisements); to assist the groups political and communal heeds and do encourage them to be energetic both socially and politically. Apart from these, to be in the service of cooperative expressions of anger at injustices; to come up with support and stop pessimistic images in general market media (Bailey & Harindranath, 2007). 

However, the representative duties of ethnic media mean a group symbolically has power. It is the integration of subspecies. Husband’s (2005) study of the relationship between ethnicity and media stated that “Media invented heritage” (p.7) is crucial in the conservation of an ethnic community. Further explained, media help in preserving one’s culture and heritage. Media consider communal values and standards.

Furthermore, media can play a vital role in the uprising and emerging transformation of people all around the globe. It is also essential in encouraging information, literacy, and acknowledgment in a country. Generally, one of the involvements is a strong correspondence between media and culture. These networks give services in larger urban areas of Canada, for instance, Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal, representing millions of Canadians whose cultural heritage is not the same. They are neither French nor Anglo-Saxon. These networks act as administrative organizations for broadcasting and broadcasting stations and services.

Furthermore, in 1971 Canada became a multicultural country by adopting a multicultural policy. The main aims of the ethnic inclusiveness policy involved promoting ethnic backgrounds to encourage and hold on to their multi-culturist adaptations. This multicultural plan is supposed to encourage creative cultural exchanges among all country’s races. Because Canadians believe that everyone should be treated equally, disrespectful attitudes will not be acceptable. Decades ago, blacks were considered ‘criminals’ and villains. They did not treat citizens equally. Even the most professional and talented minorities were not hired for good positions (Ojo, 2006). A practical example of this injustice is the story of Shelley Walcott, who had completed her graduation from Concordia University’s School of Journalism, Montreal. In addition to that, she was a former contributor to the Montreal Community Contact. In 1999, Shelley Walcott applied for a job in several places, but each time she was rejected. Approximately almost 50 news media disapproved of her before being hired by CNN. However, Canadian mass media played a vital role in eradicating this racism gap. They tried to equally promote all opportunities to Canadians by targeting three guiding principles: demonstrating federal leadership, authorizing communities, and raising awareness and changing perception and behavior (Ojo, 2006).

Aside from Canada, there is an appreciable media network, Korean Media mass, which comes up with a broad platform to explore ethnic media production (Viswanath & Pamela, 2000). In North America, numerous media sectors are working, but Korean media is among those speedily growing sectors. Its main objectives are to promote the cultural selfhood of journalists as individuals and the governmental identity of journalists as professionals. Korean media demonstrates such identities to promote and encourage the interests of specific ethnic backgrounds. When the diplomatic relations between Korea and Canada and Korea and the United States were formed, a wave of immigration was observed. Aside from the early and prior immigrants, most of the employees in the Korean media sector in Los Angeles are comprised of multinational students (Viswanath & Pamela, 2000).  

Another crucial motivation for international students to be a part of the Korean media sector is to continue their accommodation in the United States after fulfilling their academic programs (Yu, 2016). They can position themselves between temporary residents and immigrants (although this varies by an individual). These are mutually rewarding internship programs. On the other hand, an internship can be a vital step in career development for interns. It helped them sharpen their expertise and rendered them an opportunity to publish articles that belonged to them. Korean media are known as a direction to avail job opportunities in Korea (stream media jobs or media jobs) (Yu, 2016). It is because studying ethnic media are directly related to several roles they play in the ethnic minorities and the lives of immigrants. However, ethnic media is a complicated area for analysis because political, perceptual, and cultural factors cause ethnic conflicts.

Nevertheless, the latest studies demonstrate that the media has given a voice to underrepresented ethnic groups. They are encouraged by providing a platform that serves as a place for political engagements and social activism from past years. These enriched contributions of media helped ethnic backgrounds to promote themselves.

Lew et al. (2016) explore those small businesses and medium enterprises that use social networks to leverage businesses in internationalization. Researched literature to find that Chinese Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in foreign markets effectively use this approach. The article also shows that these SMEs have faced many challenges in the process of internalization. The findings also suggest that businesses and ethnic groups use social networks to play a significant role in affecting the internationalization of these SMEs. The article also suggests that ethnic ties are significant for making social networks and building relationships with foreign multinationals (Lew et al., 2016). 

Networking plays a significant role for ethnic groups promote themselves. Fadahunsi, Smallbone & Supri (2000) focus on networking in developing ethnic minority businesses. The formal and informal relationships for development purposes and other voluntary social linkages are significant in improving capital, finding skilled labor, and searching for customers. Media can help develop personal and community-based networks that are utilized for mobilizing resources and generating sales of ethnic group business owners at different stages of business (Fadahunsi et al., 2000). There are various mediums available for these businesses to avail. All newcomers can use these digital platforms to strengthen their businesses and get promoted quickly. 

Likewise, Salaff et al. (2003) also explain that immigrants from developing countries prefer entrepreneurship, being blocked from the mainstream, and can enjoy the opportunity of a niche in the ethnic community in Canada. These immigrants face various challenges because employers do not recognize their credentials as professional and skilled workers. Due to that, they prefer self-employment. Moreover, the paper also uses examples of Chinese skilled and professional immigrants who preferred entrepreneurship based on a co-ethnic community. The reasons for starting their businesses because of rejection from the mainstream. However, they can build relationships with their community, which helps them in their business. It can be learned from community evolution that these approaches help them find human capital regardless of poor social relationships with other communities (Salaff et al., 2003). Thus, having good relations with your ethnic community can be significant in developing businesses, even in foreign lands.

However, McLean & Campbell (2003) suggest that people look for a diverse workforce in their organizations. A significant way can be using local marketing agencies and media contact to recruit members. In a few Asian Ethnic groups, such as the Pakistani-Kashmiri community, interpersonal contacts work well, whereas institutional contacts work for African-Caribbean people. The research finds that local ethnic groups can use social networks and media to recruit a diverse workforce (McLean & Campbell, 2003). It can play an essential role in finding employees from other ethnic groups. At the same time, these ethnic groups must be socially active and use modern interaction mediums. 

Apart from looking for opportunities, the media can also help minority groups escape their situation. McCabe et al. (2013) report evaluates that people use social media to escape their financial situation and cope with problems. They build social networks which further restrict them from moving forward and achieving something in life. In this case, media can bring negative consequences for people from minority ethnic groups to resolve issues related to well-being. 

Furthermore, Anwar & Daniel (2016) also explore online marketing opportunities for young entrepreneurs from ethnic minority groups. The paper suggests that entrepreneurs from ethnic minority groups use entrepreneurial marketing ways to introduce their products in the market. The online opportunities can be helpful for these communities in operating online start-ups in the U.K. This approach suggests flexible use of resources to avoid copying others and rely on experimental approaches.

According to Clemons (2020), minorities still have to face the issue of discrimination to some extent, despite the change in the representation of different ethnic groups in different fields of life, including politics, entertainment, and others. The study, as mentioned before, explains the effectiveness of the media and the way it altered the way people see people from different ethnic groups giving the example of the way Barack Obama managed to become the first black president changing the political history of the U.S. In addition, Bekalu et al. l. (2019) added that there are positive and negative aspects related to the use of social media by individuals from different age groups based on the type of communication they have or the sites they use.

It shows that ethnic groups can represent themselves through media, or the excessive use of media can expose them to harmful content creating an adverse effect on their mental or psychological health. At the same time, racial discrimination through media is another matter of concern as it fosters a culture of hatred among inter-ethnic groups. For instance, during the pandemic Chinese people were being widely targeted and discriminated against online and offline based on their ethnicity and the perception people held about the Covid-19 being a fault of Chinese people (Bieber, 2022). The study above clearly reflects how people fuel discriminatory practices against a particular ethnic group. Also, it shows that discriminatory practices can be fabricated or fueled by a particular individual or group based on personal perception or hate against minorities. 

Cheng and Foley (2018) added that digital discrimination occurs on different platforms against people from different ethnic groups. It shows that the internet has provided people with a common platform that connects them with people around the globe and can be used for negative and positive purposes. Simultaneously, media (news channels) usually represent fake or fabricated news that creates a discriminatory environment, and it happened after the outbreak of Covid-19 when media coverage blamed China for the outbreak of the pandemic, starting a new wave of discrimination against the Chinese people (Wen et al., 2020). It shows that different factors or situations allow media to create a discriminatory environment based on the situation being negatively assessed by the majority. Henceforth, it can be said that there is a need to regulate people’s behavior in media to create a positive environment for people regardless of their ethnicity. 

The research gap from the above literature is identified as the lack of studies conducted on exploring the experiences of young entrepreneurs from ethnic minority groups and their approaches to using online marketing opportunities. This paper, therefore, aims to contribute to the existing literature by providing insights into the experiences of young entrepreneurs from ethnic minority groups and how they are approaching online marketing opportunities and other media platforms to promote themselves, their businesses, and their culture. At the same time, it will also discuss the challenges faced by ethnic minority groups and the role of media in advocacy.

CHAPTER 03: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter consists of an overview of the research methodology adopted for this study. It included the research design, data collection methods, and the research instruments used. This chapter also explains the process of data analysis adopted for this study.       

3.1 Research Method 

There are two types of research methods; quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative research method is used when the researcher wants to know about the relationship between two variables, and this method is primarily used in natural sciences (Fossey et al., 2002). It involves hypothesis testing and can be used to determine causality. On the other hand, qualitative research methods are best suited when researchers want to gain an in-depth understanding of human behavior. This type of research is often used in social and behavioral sciences and tries to discover patterns from qualitative data.

The research methodology for this study will involve a qualitative approach, which will involve reviewing existing literature on the topic and collecting and analyzing data from interviews with experts in the field. This data will be used to explore different media platforms that ethnic groups use to promote themselves and evaluate the role of media in reducing discrimination against these groups. In addition, the study will also evaluate how social media can be used by young entrepreneurs from minority ethnic groups to further promote their businesses or organizations. Given this topic’s complexity and interdisciplinary nature, a wide range of qualitative methods, such as focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews, case studies, etc., may be utilized to gather information on different aspects of this phenomenon. The data collected through these methods will be analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as content analysis and thematic analysis, to generate findings and recommendations on the topic under study.

3.2 Significance of Qualitative Research Methodology 

Qualitative research is significant in this study as it will allow a deep understanding of the phenomenon under study from the perspectives of those directly affected by it. In addition, qualitative methods such as interviews and focus group discussions will also provide an opportunity to gather data on the lived experiences of members of these groups, which would otherwise be difficult to capture through quantitative methods (Silverman, 2020).

Furthermore, Qualitative research will be better for this research because it is more in-depth and does not require a lot of people. Qualitative data also allows you to study only one topic at a time. It can be beneficial because it allows researchers to focus on specific areas rather than exploring everything simultaneously. Overall, it is believed that qualitative research will provide valuable insights into how ethnic groups use media platforms to promote themselves and how social media can help young entrepreneurs from these groups further their business goals. Overall, qualitative research is well-suited to this study because it can provide a deeper understanding of the complexities and nuances of minority ethnic groups’ use of media platforms and social media.

3.3 Research Design 

The research design for this study will be based on a qualitative approach, which will involve collecting and analyzing data from interviews with field experts and reviewing existing literature on the topic. This data will be used to explore different media platforms that ethnic groups use to promote themselves and evaluate the role of media in reducing discrimination against these groups. In addition, the study will also evaluate how social media can be used by young entrepreneurs from minority ethnic groups to further promote their businesses or organizations. Given this topic’s complexity and interdisciplinary nature, a wide range of qualitative methods, such as semi-structured interviews, structured interviews, etc., may be utilized to gather information on different aspects of this phenomenon. The data collected through these methods will be analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as content analysis and thematic analysis, to generate findings and recommendations on the topic under study.

Research QuestionsResearch DesignMethodology
  1). How do the ethnic groups promote themselves through media?  An interview guide will be used to conduct interviewsQualitative Method
  2).        How do the media help in reducing the extent of discrimination among ethnic groups?  Codes are generated by using the coding method.  Thematic Analysis  
  3). What are the recommendations for using social media for young entrepreneurs from minority ethnic groups?  Patterns are drawn by using themes and codesThematic analysis 
Table 1: Research Methodology Framework

3.4 Data Collection

To facilitate data collection for this study, the researcher will use online and offline methods. The current study has utilized a qualitative approach as the primary research method. The secondary sources have also been included to supplement the primary data. For example, as part of the literature review, the researcher will search academic databases such as Google Scholar and PubMed to identify relevant articles and studies published on this topic in recent years. The researcher will conduct interviews with experts in the field, including researchers, entrepreneurs, and members of chosen ethnic groups, to gain their insights and perspectives on the role of media in promoting ethnic groups and reducing discrimination against them.

Additionally, it may also use various online platforms and social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter to directly engage with members of these groups to get their feedback on how they are using different media outlets to promote their businesses and organizations. It will also use secondary data from government sources, such as census information and survey results, to gain insights into the prevalence of certain ethnic groups in different regions. The combination of secondary and primary data draws results for this research. 

3.4.1 Interview Guide 

In-depth interviews have been used as this study’s primary data collection method. Furthermore, secondary sources such as books, journals, and articles have also been used to support the findings of this study. The interview guide will be prepared to conduct semi-structured interviews with respondents from different ethnic groups. It is essential to use an interview guide to maintain a consistent line of questioning throughout the interviews and ensure that all relevant topics are covered. Moreover, the use of an interview guide will also allow for comparisons to be made between the different interviews that are conducted. The interview guide will be flexible in that it will allow for follow-up questions and probing, depending on the responses given by the participants (DiCicco‐Bloom & Crabtree, 2020). 

This interview guide will include a list of open-ended questions that will be used to gain insights into different aspects of this phenomenon, such as how ethnic groups use media platforms to promote themselves, the role of social media in reducing discrimination against these groups, and how young entrepreneurs from minority ethnic groups can utilize social media to further promote their businesses or organizations. It will also include prompts or follow-up questions based on the responses received during the interviews to explore specific topics further. Finally, it will be ensured that all participants are aware of their right to withdraw from the study without providing any reasons for doing so. 

Sample questions of the interview guide will be as follows;

Serial No.Sample Questions
01.  
02.  
03.
04.  
05.    
06.     07.
What are some of the most popular social media platforms you are using?  
How do you use social media to represent yourself?  
Does media help you in promoting yourself? If Yes, how?  
What is the role of traditional media in promoting people from minority groups?  
Do you think that social media can help reduce discrimination against minority groups?  
How can young entrepreneurs from minority groups use social media to further their businesses or organizations?  
Are there any challenges that need to be addressed when using social media to promote ethnic groups? How can these challenges be addressed?  
Table 2: Interview Guide Questions

3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure 

It is difficult to estimate the exact sample size required for this study, as it will be primarily dictated by the number of respondents that can contact and interview. The sample will include black people, Hispanics, Indians, and Asian people. The sample size will be 7-10 participants. It will include respondents who have experienced working with ethnic groups in media outlets, social media platforms, or as young entrepreneurs from these groups will be recruited for the interview. Furthermore, it would also be desirable to include a mix of men and women and people from different age groups to gather a representative sample.

A purposive sampling approach for selecting our participants will allow choosing the most appropriate participants for the research project based on their expertise or ethnicity. For example, we may start by recruiting individuals from our networks, such as friends and family members, who would be willing to participate in the study. We may also use online platforms to recruit participants, such as social media groups or websites focusing on issues related to ethnic minority groups.

3.6 Coding of Themes 

Once the interviews have been conducted, the next step will be to code the data to identify common themes and patterns. This will be done by transcribing the interviews and then going through the transcripts, highlighting any sections that seem relevant to the research questions. These sections will then be coded according to different themes, and any emerging themes will be further explored. Finally, the coded data will be analyzed in order to answer the research questions.

3.7 Analysis of Data 

Thematic analysis is a method of analyzing qualitative data by identifying common themes or patterns. This will be done by transcribing the interviews and then going through the transcripts, highlighting any sections that seem relevant to the research questions. After the interviews are completed, the data will be transcribed, and thematic analysis of the responses received will be performed to identify common trends and themes (Merriam, 2002). This will allow insights into how different ethnic groups use social media to promote themselves and the role of social media in furthering the business goals of young entrepreneurs from these groups. These sections will then be coded according to different themes, and any emerging themes will be further explored. Finally, the coded data will be analyzed to answer the research questions. Additionally, it will also interpret the data in light of existing literature on this topic in order to situate our findings within the larger body of research on social media and ethnic minority groups.

3.8 Ethical considerations

As this study will collect sensitive data from individuals belonging to minority ethnic groups, it is important to consider the ethical implications of the research design and data collection methods. For example, to maintain the participants’ anonymity, the researcher will need to come up with a code name that is not linked to any ethnic group. The researcher will also take special care to ensure that all data collected from individuals is kept confidential and only used for research purposes. 

Finally, the researcher will ensure that all participants know their right to withdraw from the study at any time without providing any reasons for doing so. This is necessary in order to protect participants’ rights and privacy. In summary, conducting a thorough ethical review before commencing the research project is aimed at minimizing potential risks and negative consequences of this study.

3.9 Conclusion

In conclusion, it is clear that qualitative methods such as interviews will be helpful for gaining a deeper understanding of the role of media in promoting ethnic groups and reducing discrimination against them. The research identifies practical strategies that minority ethnic groups can use to improve their visibility and gain greater acceptance from mainstream society.

CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

This chapter has a significant role in research as it focuses on analyzing the data collected based on the methodology chosen in the previous chapter of the research. Also, it will help provide the requisite information on the discussion part, comparing the results of the current study with existing literature available on the topic. 

4.1 Themes 

Sr. No.ThemesDescription
1Social Capital 
2Social Networking (Formal and Informal)This theme will help in understanding the way formal and informal networking help individuals in building a connection with each other that eventually helps them in promoting their mutually accepted notions
3Inter-Ethnic LinkingIt will help in explaining the way people from different ethnic groups communicate with each other and share their views on different issues or topics in a precise manner
4Low-Cost marketing opportunitiesThis theme will explain the way the internet helped in providing low-cost marketing opportunities allowing new businesses to improve and spread across the globe
5Job OpportunitiesThe theme will help in understanding the way different job opportunities are being generated and what is the perception of the respondents toward different job opportunities
6Self-confidenceSelf-confidence allows individuals to demonstrate their skills in a better way and also helps in improving the way people communicate with other individuals.
7Recruiting laborThis theme will focus on the way different organizations recruit people from multiple ethnicities without any discrimination based on the way media helped in showing a positive image of the minorities
8Finding CustomersIt will help in explaining the way customers will be found through the use of media
9Promotion of CultureThis theme will help in explaining the way media helps in promote a culture of people from different ethnic groups
10AdvocacyIt will mainly assess the response of individuals towards the use of advocacy by ethnic groups using media
11Entrepreneurial MarketingThe main focus of this theme is on the way entrepreneurial marketing is being utilized using media effectively
12Niche MarketingThis theme will assess the way niche marketing is used to target consumers for promotional purposes.
Table 3: Themes after coding

4.2 Analysis 

Theme 1: Social Capital 

Social capital is widely known as a concept explaining the relationship between people living and working in a specific society, which helps society function effectively. However, when the respondents were asked to explain their views towards social capital, they provided varying views on the topic; some of the responses are underlined;

“There is no one answer to this question as different people may use different platforms or media outlets to engage with members of minority ethnic groups, depending on their personal preferences and the context in which they interact. Some individuals might use social media platforms such as Twitter or Facebook to connect with others. In contrast, others might prefer to engage in face-to-face conversations or forums or discussion groups. Ultimately, the most important thing is to be respectful and understanding of all members of society’s diverse experiences and perspectives.” (Potential Respondent)

According to the response above, it can be seen that people use different platforms in order to communicate with each other through Facebook and Twitter. Also, the respondent indicated that some individuals prefer to communicate face to face instead of through the internet due to their level of comfort or preference. However, the primary purpose of communication is to build a mutual understanding and understand diverse cultures in a better way.

Theme 2: Social Networking (Formal and Informal)

Social networking is widely known as connecting people through different networking sites. Furthermore, people from different ethnic groups engage in formal and informal social networking based on their interests and the type of relationships with other individuals. Formal social networking can comprise the connectivity between bosses and employees, teachers and students, or others. As a result, the groups of people, as mentioned before, are connected and gathered on social media for a specific reason, motive, or interest. However, informal social networking allows people from different fields of life to communicate and connect through social media, such as friends, entertainment groups, gaming groups, and others. Moreover, when the respondents were asked to explain what they think of formal and informal social networking, they provided different views based on their understanding. For instance, one of the respondents explained that;

“There are many ways young entrepreneurs from minority groups can use social media to further their businesses or organizations. Some strategies include creating and sharing content related to their products or services, connecting with potential customers and clients through social networking platforms, leveraging influencer marketing to build brand awareness, and engaging in online discussions and forums with other business owners or leaders in their industry. Overall, social media is a powerful tool for young entrepreneurs to promote their businesses and connect with others from all backgrounds.” (Potential Respondent)

According to the respondent, different organizations target potential consumers through social media platforms, which helps in creating a positive networking environment between two parties. At the same time, different companies use the internet as a medium of communication between organizations and employees, which helps build effective communication between employees and employers. Also, it provides accessible and formal communication between two parties.

Theme 3: Inter-Ethnic Linking 

Inter-ethnic linking helps connect people from varying ethnic groups holding different cultural values and beliefs. These ethnic groups are connected through media, allowing people to communicate with each other and share their social and cultural values or knowledge through inter-ethnic linking. Nonetheless, when the respondents were asked to provide their views on inter-ethnic linking, different views differed based on different factors. In this regard, one of the respondents explained that;

“Social media has played a key role in increasing inter-ethnic linking by providing platforms for people from different ethnic groups to come together, share information, and collaborate on various projects. This can take many forms, including online forums and discussion groups, social networking platforms like Facebook and LinkedIn, and even online marketplaces like Etsy. Additionally, social media has helped connect people from different cultures who may not have otherwise had the opportunity to interact.” (Potential Respondent)

The respondent tried to shed some light on how social media helped improve the inter-ethnic connection through different platforms. Furthermore, the response clearly shows that there are different forms of communication, including online forums and discussion groups, social networking platforms, and marketplaces like Etsy. However, the primary purpose of these groups is to foster a culture of interconnectivity between people of different ethnic groups. It allows people to learn about different cultures and other aspects of their culture. 

Theme 4: Low-Cost Marketing Opportunities 

Low-cost marketing opportunities allow businesses to opt for financially viable solutions for the companies, such as using online channels or media for business promotion, which is cost-effective and less time-consuming. Nevertheless, the respondents provided their views on the theme under discussion differently. One of the respondents explained that;

“There are many popular social media platforms commonly used by ethnic groups to promote themselves, including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. These platforms allow users to share content, build networks with other users and connect directly with their target audiences. Social media provides a low-cost marketing opportunity for businesses and individuals looking to grow.” (Potential Respondent)

The response above shows that ethnic groups use different platforms to promote themselves. Also, it allows them to directly communicate with the target audience through media. The main reason behind using social media is the low-cost opportunity it provides to individuals looking for business and growth. 

Theme 5: Job Opportunities

Job opportunities mainly focus on how different ethnic minorities get job opportunities without discrimination. Henceforth, when the respondents were asked to provide their views on the subject, they explained their views differently that are underlined;

“There are many different ways young entrepreneurs from minority groups can use social media to further their businesses or organizations. Some strategies include creating and sharing content related to their products or services, connecting with potential customers and clients through social networking platforms, leveraging influencer marketing to build brand awareness, and engaging in online discussions and forums with other business owners or leaders in their industry. Overall, social media is a powerful tool for young entrepreneurs to promote their businesses and connect with others from all backgrounds.” (Potential Respondent)

The respondent explained that entrepreneurs focus on improving and expanding their businesses through online channels. As a result, these new businesses help other individuals find job opportunities using the internet. Simultaneously, different strategies are being opted by the organizations to promote the businesses and attract people as customers and employees. 

Theme 6: Self-Confidence 

Self-confidence is an individual’s recognition of self and the personal abilities that can help an individual excel in different fields of life. However, when the respondents were asked to explain their self-confidence, their views helped in having a better understanding of the theme through a detailed response that is jotted down below;

“There are certainly some challenges that businesses or organizations may face when trying to engage with members of minority ethnic groups via social media. For example, finding common ground and creating meaningful connections with individuals from different backgrounds can be difficult. Additionally, members of minority groups may be wary of engaging with businesses or organizations online due to negative experiences or concerns about safety and privacy. Finally, social media platforms themselves can sometimes be unwelcoming environments for members of minority groups due to harassment and hate speech. However, by being aware of these challenges and working to overcome them, businesses and organizations can create a more inclusive social media presence that is welcoming for everyone.” (Potential Respondent)

The respondent explained that it is possible to have a positive or negative experience while using media. There are different sites where individuals from different ethnic groups face issues related to privacy or face harassment based on different reasons. Such a situation creates a negative impact on the self-confidence of individuals. At the same time, a positive social media environment can help different ethnical minorities gather under one motive and promote themselves better, helping to develop self-confidence in people. 

Theme 7: Recruiting Labors

One of the significant themes identified by respondents is recruiting laborers. According to the interviewees, social media is an effective and fastest way to recruit laborers. Organizations usually post their vacant positions on online job portals and wait for applications from desired candidates. Once they shortlist the candidates, they arrange an interview through phone calls or face-to-face meetings. Media can be a valuable tool to find skilled laborers for businesses. One of the respondents expresses that;

“Companies often use social media platforms to post job advertisements and potential screen candidates. Social media can be a great way for companies to reach a large pool of potential employees quickly and easily.”

 Likewise, media can also help young entrepreneurs find investors and partners for their businesses and skilled laborers. Moreover, ethnic groups can use media as a powerful tool to build networks with people from other ethnic backgrounds living in different parts of the world. They can find human capital in their community as well. 

Theme 8: Finding Customers

Another significant theme is finding customers. In the current business scenario, businesses need to have an online presence. Businesses can target a larger group of potential customers by having an online presence. With the help of media, businesses can interact with their customers and understand their needs and wants. It also helps businesses in building long-term relationships with their customers. For instance, one of the interviewees said;

“Social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter are a great way to connect with potential customers. Businesses can build relationships and trust by engaging with customers on these platforms.”

Moreover, businesses can also use social media platforms to launch new products and services. By doing so, they can reach many customers and engage them in various marketing campaigns. Respondents have expressed their experience with social media;

“I tend to post a lot of content about our shared culture and history. I also use social media to connect with other business owners who are part of the community. We often collaborate on projects that help promote our products and services to a wider audience.”

 It also helps build relationships with customers by using online platforms. 

“Social media has helped me promote myself and my business. It’s a great way to reach out to potential customers and build relationships with them. I’ve also found that it is a great platform for networking and connecting with other like-minded individuals.”

 Literature also supports the above argument that the use of online platforms helps businesses to reach their target audiences. In addition, it creates an awareness of their products and services. Many businesses tend to follow their competitors’ strategies to stay ahead in the market. In order to do so, they use social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter to keep track of their competitors’ activities.

Theme 9: Promotion of Culture

The media can also help ethnic groups to promote their culture. In the current globalized world, businesses need to have a global presence. Businesses can target a larger group of potential customers using social media platforms. In addition, they can also use these platforms to promote their culture. For instance, one of the interviewees said;

“I am primarily active on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. These platforms have been instrumental in helping me promote my cultural heritage and build a community of support around my business venture.”

Moreover, people also feel connected with their culture and norms. They often seek out businesses that reflect their values. Social media can help new businesses find customers and build relationships with them by using cultural values. For instance, one of the interviewees said;

“People can sense when you’re just trying to sell them something, so I try to focus on sharing my passion for my culture and its many aspects.”

Theme 10: Advocacy 

Advocacy is very important for addressing ethnic-related issues. It helps in creating awareness about various issues faced by a particular group. The media can help ethnic communities by spreading the word about their activities and achievements. It can also help in bringing about a change in society. For instance, one of the interviewees said;

“Media can be used to raise awareness about the experiences and perspectives of minority groups, challenge negative stereotypes and misconceptions, and provide a platform for marginalized voices to be heard.” 

 Some of the relevant issues are highlighted by the respondents from diverse ethnic groups. They are as follows:

“There are certainly challenges when using social media to promote ethnic groups. Some main challenges include access and representation issues, online harassment and abuse, and lack of diversity in leadership and content creation. In order to address these challenges, it’s important to work towards greater inclusion and representation on social media platforms”.

There are several reasons why advocacy about minority ethnic groups via media is important. Firstly, the media is critical in shaping public opinion and perceptions. By using social media platforms to advocate for minority ethnic groups, businesses can help facilitate dialogue and promote awareness about issues affecting these communities. Secondly, advocacy can also help raise awareness about businesses’ positive initiatives to support minority ethnic groups. This can help to challenge negative stereotypes and misconceptions about these communities. Finally, advocacy can also help to provide a platform for marginalized voices to be heard. In doing so, businesses can play a vital role in promoting social inclusion and diversity.

Theme 11: Entrepreneurial Marketing

Entrepreneurial marketing is a marketing strategy that focuses on identifying and meeting potential customers’ needs and wants to generate sales and increase revenue for a business. This type of marketing typically involves using social media platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, to connect with potential customers, understand their buying behavior, and identify new opportunities for growth and expansion. Additionally, entrepreneurial marketing may involve promoting a business through various forms of content marketing, such as blogs, articles, videos, and online guides. Ultimately, entrepreneurial marketing aims to establish a strong brand identity for a business and build long-term relationships with customers that generate repeat sales and loyal brand advocates.

“Several strategies can effectively promote businesses or organizations run by members of minority ethnic groups. Some key strategies to consider include utilizing social media and other digital platforms to reach your target audience, partnering with influencers and advocates within the community, creating authentic content that resonates with your audience, and engaging meaningfully with community members.”

 Entrepreneurial Marketing helps businesses connect with potential customers and understand their buying behavior. Secondly, it helps businesses to identify new opportunities for growth and expansion. Finally, it helps businesses to build long-term relationships with customers that generate repeat sales and loyal brand advocates. Ultimately, entrepreneurial marketing is an essential tool for businesses to use in order to connect with potential customers, understand their needs and wants, and generate sales and revenue.

Theme 12: Niche Media

Niche media is online publishing focusing on a specific niche or area of interest, such as minority ethnic groups. This type of media typically uses various forms of digital content, such as blogs, articles, videos, and infographics, to reach and engage its target audience. By focusing on a particular niche or area of interest, niche media can provide a platform for individuals and groups within that community to share their stories, experiences, and ideas. Additionally, niche media can help businesses better understand the needs and wants of customers in minority ethnic communities, which can help them develop more targeted marketing strategies and programs. Ultimately, niche media plays an important role in promoting social inclusion and diversity in society.

“I have seen several niche media outlets promoting Asian culture and values. These media outlets help bridge the gap between cultures and promote understanding and acceptance. They also provide a platform for ethnic groups to share their stories and experiences and highlight the contributions these groups have made to society. Overall, they are an invaluable tool in helping ethnic groups to promote themselves and gain recognition.”

One potential strategy for entrepreneurs seeking to promote their businesses in minority ethnic communities is utilizing niche media outlets. These online publishers typically focus on specific niches or areas of interest, such as Asian culture and values. Using niche media platforms, entrepreneurs can connect with individuals and groups within these communities, share their stories and experiences, and promote their products and services. Additionally, niche media can help entrepreneurs better understand customers’ needs and wants in minority ethnic communities, which can help them develop more targeted marketing strategies and programs. Overall, niche media is an important tool for promoting social inclusion and diversity in society, making it a valuable resource for entrepreneurs looking to reach new customers and grow their businesses.

Discussion 

Several strategies can effectively promote businesses or organizations run by members of minority ethnic groups. Some of the key strategies to consider include utilizing social media and other digital platforms to reach your target audience, partnering with influencers and advocates within the community, creating authentic content that resonates with your audience, and engaging meaningfully with members of the community (McLean & Campbell, 2003; Lew et al., 2016).

The current study results show that media plays an important role in representing minorities. For this purpose, analyzing themes against the existing literature provides definitive information on the topic under discussion. Bekal et al. (2019) discussed that social media could positively or negatively impact consumers based on how it is used. The study’s results, as mentioned before, affirm the current study’s findings as it shows the negative and positive attributes related to the use of media. Likewise, Clemons (2020) illustrated that the concept of racial discrimination is reduced in different countries, accepting people from minority groups as these individuals are promoting themselves through media. These results are justifiable with the findings of the current study as they also show a rapid change in the perception of individuals towards minorities. 

Additionally, utilizing niche media outlets can be an effective way to reach and engage minority ethnic groups. Niche media typically focuses on specific niches or areas of interest, such as Asian culture and values, which can provide a valuable platform for entrepreneurs to share their stories, experiences, and products or services (Salaff et al., 2003). Ultimately, by utilizing some or all of these strategies, businesses and organizations can reach new customers, grow their operations, and promote social inclusion and diversity in society. Businesses and organizations need to promote inclusion and diversity in today’s society. By doing so, they are not only able to reach new customers but also help to create a more inclusive and accepting environment in their communities. Additionally, entrepreneurs should also focus on building long-term relationships with customers in these communities, as this can help generate repeat sales and loyal brand advocates over time.

CHAPTER 05: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The final chapter of the study aims to provide a summary of the complete research along with the recommendations and limitations that provide knowledge about the issues researchers faced while conducting research and the ways different shortcomings can be improved. Also, it includes the practical implication of future directions that allow future researchers with the requisite information to conduct research in the future. 

 

5.1 Conclusion 

Ethnicity has attracted the attention of social scientists for a long time. This is because ethnicity often refers to a limited number of predefined social positions passed down from generation to generation, regardless of a person’s will or desire, and cannot be changed. Because such statuses are frequently perceived as a fundamental and constant component of human nature, people are more likely to experience them deeply and have more opportunities for conflict. Nevertheless, the media assists various ethnic groups in better representing themselves. Furthermore, people from the same ethnic community living in different parts of the world can communicate with one another through media and express their concerns through various online and offline media platforms.

Nevertheless, the literature on the topic shows that different researchers have varying views on the topic under discussion. Some researchers have focused on the positive attributes associated with the promotion of ethnic groups through media, while others focused on the negative aspects. Based on the available information, the study mainly focused on answering the research question, “How has the media helped ethnic groups to promote themselves?”. In order to answer the research question and the sub-questions designed for the study primary method based on the qualitative methodology is being used by the researcher with a sample size of 7-10 individuals (including black people, Hispanic people, Indians, and Asian people).

Furthermore, the interview guide was designed, and the researcher conducted semi-structural interviews to have in-depth knowledge about the topic based on the interviewees’ responses. Simultaneously, the interviews were conducted considering the ethics that helped the researcher consider the participants’ privacy by keeping their names and other sensitive information confidential. Also, it allowed the respondents to stay comfortable and provide their views based on their personal experience or knowledge in an effective manner. 

Additionally, the collected data was further analyzed using thematic analysis, where different themes were generated based on the interviewees’ responses. After analyzing the themes, the discussion showed that the findings of the current study affirmed the ideas shared by different researchers. According to the results, various tactics can be used to promote businesses or organizations managed by minority ethnic groups. Using social media and other digital channels to reach your target audience, working with community influencers and advocates, providing authentic content that resonates with your audience, and connecting meaningfully with members of the community are just a few of the major techniques to consider. Also, it showed that media helps people from different ethnic groups to represent themselves on various platforms. However, these groups promote themselves differently based on different factors, such as promoting the concept of equality, anti-discriminatory movements, and others.

Also, it shows that there are different people using media as a tool to foster a culture of discrimination by targeting a particular ethnic group; for instance, the Chinese were widely targeted for being the reason for the outbreak of the pandemic Covid-19 due to the media coverage and the way different individuals created hype of the matter. As a result, most people in the media started targeting the Chinese and harassing them through online and offline channels. Henceforth, such activities negatively impact internet users as they neglect their potential to contribute to different activities that, eventually, reduce their self-confidence. In addition, the results represent that people from different ethnic groups are rapidly engaging in entrepreneurial activities that allow them to improve their position in society and offer job opportunities to people from different ethnic groups. It shows that there is a need to bring an optimistic change in the digital environment by regulating the behavior of internet users. Also, minorities should be encouraged to promote themselves through online media by allowing others to connect positively with them. 

5.2 Limitations of the Study

Several limitations of the study may have affected the results of the research:

  1. The time was quite short of completing the research.
  2. It was difficult to find the potential respondents for the primary study due to the situation and concerns followed by the outbreak of Covid-19.
  3. Some of the respondents withdrew from the interview, which required finding new respondents and created a challenging situation for the researcher.

Another limitation is that only qualitative methodology was used for this study. While qualitative research provides rich data to inform the discussion, it is impossible to generalize the study’s results to a larger population using only a qualitative approach.

5.3 Recommendations 

Based on the overall study, there are underlined recommendations on the topic;

• Firstly, businesses or organizations should use social media and other digital channels to reach their target audience. 

• Secondly, they should also work with community influencers and advocates who can help in promoting their products or services among the members of the minority groups. 

• Thirdly, providing authentic content that resonates with users from different ethnic groups is essential. 

• The Internet is undoubtedly a strong tool for promotion; therefore, ethnic groups should use it to create awareness regarding their culture and social values

• Fourthly, businesses or organizations should try to connect meaningfully with the members of the community and allow them to feel represented. The media needs to create a positive culture of connectedness. 

• Moreover, it is essential for people from different ethnic groups to promote themselves through online platforms so that they can gain more confidence in their work efforts and get opportunities from other people in society. 

• There is a need to regulate people’s behavior on social media to discourage discrimination against minorities. Besides, governments should reduce negative media coverage by taking serious notice of the situation. 

• Finally, it is also necessary for businesses and organizations to focus on providing job opportunities to people from different minority groups so that they can improve their position in society.

5.4 Future Directions 

The present study has opened up new avenues for future research. It is recommended that further studies be conducted to explore the impact of minority ethnic groups on digital media and their influence on online activities. For example, more in-depth interviews with people from different minority communities can provide deeper insights into the impact of these groups on the target audience. Also, case studies of successful minority-owned businesses can help to understand their effective strategies to promote themselves. Moreover, further research should also focus on the negative impact of digital media on minority groups and the ways to mitigate it.

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